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Punch a few holes in a hat-box, and make it up a shakedown inside.

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I had a shakedown on a canvased-in porch, on which were six beds and four cots. There was to be a cruiser waiting at Bremerton for a shakedown cruise. At length his eyes rolling from side to side focused themselves on a low opening near the foot of his shakedown bed. Ye'll sleep in the kitchen on a shakedown , and the divil knows where it'll shake from for I haven't a spare bed in the house! Well Done!! Favorite track: Yussef's Groove. Favorite track: SV Interlude.

Torbjorn Sedin. Doug Mayo-Wells. Rob Richardson. Claudia Torstensen.

Definition of 'shakedown'

Brett Gillingham. Edward Onaci. Cam Crawford. Leonard Ashley. The Weatherman. Dom PM. Vilem Horak. Takahiro Kuramoto. Andy Uzzell. Joel Hooks. Marijus Satkauskas. Toni Rese. Sloop Jon B. Jack White. Slay Matthews. Big Cap Spatch. J D Hughes. Stefan Portmann. Although a number of simplifications have been used in the present, preliminary study, the agreement between the stresses calculated from the measured profiles and the yield stress of the material clearly demonstrates the potential value of the inverse approach.

It is hoped that this method can be extended to more complex roughness distributions and that it will provide a way of checking the predictions of EHL theory in these situations.

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Because of the high stress levels accompanying the contact of counterformal bodies, it is likely that plastic flow will occur sometime in the history of track loading. When a load is reapplied to a body with residual stresses, further plastic flow may or may not occur depending upon the history of the loading process and the strain-hardening characteristics of the material. This may well be the mode of failure which results in the gross plastic deformation often observed at the edge of a rail. Under other circumstances, a cyclic loading produces a limited amount of displacement, but the material undergoes plastic flow in alternating directions during each cycle of loading.

Although theoretical rules exist [ Hodge, , p. It may well be that the structure will have undergone a low-cycle fatigue failure long before it reaches its shakedown state.


Johnson [ ] has shown how the shakedown state can be found in problems of rolling contact. Although residual stresses can be deleterious, they can also be helpful if they occur in the proper direction with proper magnitude. Indeed much of the benefit of surface treatments e. The determination of residual stresses, in rails, and their effects on rail life, has been the subject of a continuing series of researches sponsored by the Office for Research and Experiments of the International Union of Railways O.

It was suggested that the most likely zone for the initiation of kidney-shaped fatigue flaws shelling is at the depth of 15 mm where a high hydrostatic residual tension exists. In [O. Upon a standard state of residual stress, the Hertz stress and bending stresses were superposed. The Hertz stresses were calculated from the formulas of Thomas and Hoersch [ ]. The stress histories were obtained at several depths on planes where high shear stresses occurred, and were plotted as trajectories in a plane of shear stress T, versus mean normal stress P.

"shakedown" in American English

Unfortunately, these trajectories are difficult to interpret from the point of view of fatigue failure because of the lack of a reliable criterion of fatigue damage under multi-axial states of stress. There are differences in the application of the time fraction rule in different codes, in terms of safety factors on creep rupture curves and the interaction rules for combining the calculated creep damage with fatigue. An alternative to the time fraction approach is the ductility exhaustion method.

Early developments of this method led to its incorporation in the R5 assessment procedure. As with the time fraction rule, there were detailed differences from other ductility exhaustion methods, in terms of the definition of creep ductility and the associated interaction rules. This has led to further developments that suggest the method is capable of greater accuracy than the time fraction rule. The procedures include: the shakedown reference stress approach for structural assessment; the ductility exhaustion method for estimating creep damage; and the inclusion of size effects in fatigue damage calculations to enable assessments of thin in-reactor components.

An associated step-by-step procedure enables easier application of the procedures; the ductility exhaustion model addresses multiaxial stresses, including the triaxial stresses that may be present in regions of high-welding residual stress. Additional advice for the assessment of welds includes fatigue strength reduction factors based on experimental data on austenitic welds, generalized hysteresis loop construction methods for complex non-isothermal cycles, supported by laboratory data collected under non-isothermal conditions, and advice on inelastic analysis when simplified shakedown methods are inapplicable.

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The R5 procedure provides an assessment of the continuing integrity of a defect-free component, where the operating lifetime might be limited by one of the following mechanisms:. These mechanisms are assessed by simplified approaches, which are less restrictive than those based on elastic calculations, and do not require the complexity of full inelastic computation.

The simplified approaches use reference stress and shakedown concepts and incorporate some conservatism. Within these simplified approaches there are a number of options for performing some of the calculations. The first option presented is the simplest, while other options may require additional calculations or data but give less restrictive results. An alternative method to the simplified approaches is to use detailed inelastic calculations to demonstrate the continuing integrity of a component.

Several limits are included in the procedure to ensure the validity of the adopted approach.

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The steps of the procedure illustrate a simple conservative route throughout the procedure and indicate where a higher level of assessment might be required. The procedure is not intended to provide an estimate of the number of cycles left until the failure of a component, although the crack initiation endurance is a lower bound to this. Following initiation, or for components containing cracks or crack-like defects, an assessment may be supported by separate calculations using other procedures in R5.

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Some concepts can be mentioned:. The pipeline remains intact, but the strains increase in each cycle until they are no longer acceptable. The strains in each cycle decrease until, eventually the structure behaves purely elastic. It is assumed that the shutdowns are constant, i. A pipeline on a 3D seabed surface is analyzed having both a vertical and horizontal out-of-straightness.

Internal pressure and temperature loads are applied up to full operational load. Thereafter, the internal pressure is reduced to 0 and the pipe wall temperature is gradually reduced to ambient. The corresponding total axial strains are shown in Figure 7. Figure 7. Total axial strain vs. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads.

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